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Mengenal Jenis Tanaman Cengkeh Dan Cara Budidaya

Tanaman cengkeh (Syzigium aromaticum) merupakan tanaman perkebunan/industri berupa pohon dengan famili Myrtaceae. Asal tanaman cengkeh ini belum jelas, karena ada yang beberapa pendapat bahwa pohon cengkeh berasal dari Maluku Utara, Kepulauan Maluku, Philipina atau Irian. Di daerah kepulauan Maluku ditemukan tanaman cengkeh tertua di dunia dan daerah ini merupakan satu-satunya produsen cengceh terbesar di dunia.

Penyebaran tanaman cengkeh keluar pulau Maluku mulai sejak tahun 1769. Bibit tanaman ini mula-mula diselundupkan oleh seorang kapten dari Prancis ke Rumania, selanjutnya disebarkan ke Zanzibar dan Madagaskar. Penyebaran tanaman cengkeh ke wilayah Indonesia seperti Jawa, Sumatra, Kalimantan baru dimulai pada tahun 1870. Sampai saat ini tanaman cengkeh telah tersebar ke seluruh dunia.

tanaman cengkeh dikenal sebagai tanaman rempah yang digunakan sebagai obat tradisional. Cengkeh termasuk salah satu penghasil minyak atsiri yang biasa digunakan sebagai bahan baku industri farmasi maupun industri makanan, sedangkan penggunaan yang terbanyak sebagai bahan baku rokok.

VARIETA-VARIETAS UNGGUL YANG DITANAM

1.Cengkeh Siputih:

  • Helai daun besar dan berwarna kuning atau hijau muda;
  • Cabang kurang rimbun;
  • Bunga besar, warna kuning dan berjumlah belasan per rumpun.

2. Cengkeh Sikotok:

  • Helai daun kecil, warna hijau sampai hijau tua kehitam-hitaman dan lebih mengkilap;
  • Cabang rimbun dan rendah, semua ranting tertutup daun;
  • Bunga kuning kemerahan, tiap rumpun 20-50 bunga.

3. Cengkeh Zanzibar:

  • Bentuk daun panjang ramping dan berwarna hijau gelap;
  • Bunga berwarna lebih merah dengan produksi tinggi;
  • Merupakan jenis terbaik.

SYARAT PERTUMBUHAN

1. Iklim

Cengkeh menghendaki iklim yang panas dengan curah hujan cukup merata, karena tanaman ini tidak tahan kemarau panjang.

Angin yang terlalu kencang dapat merusak tajuk tanaman.

Curah hujan optimal bagi pertumbuhan tanaman cengkeh antara 1500-4500 mm/tahun.

Cengkeh menghendaki sinar matahari minimal 8 jam per hari.

Suhu yang optimal tanaman ini dikehendaki adalah 22-30 oC, dengan kelembaban udara antara 60-80%.

2. Media Tanam

Jenis tanah yang baik adalah latosol, andosol dan podsolik merah. Menyukai tanah gembur dengan drainase yang baik.

Derajat keasaman (pH) yang cocok untuk tanaman cengkeh adalah 5,5-5,6.

Kedalaman air tanah pada musim hujan tidak lebih dangkal dari 3 m dari permukaan tanah dan pada musim kemarau tidak lebih dari 8 m.

Tanah dengan kemiringan sampai 20% lebih baik dari tanah datar, karena dranasenya baik. Pada tanah itu harus dibuat parit dranase sedalam kurang lebih 1 m agar air meluap pada musim hujan dapat disalurkan ke arah lain.

3. Ketinggian Tempat

Tanaman cengkeh cocok pada ketinggin 0-900 m dpl. (paling optimum pada 300-600 m dpl) atau terletak pada ketingginan lebih dari 900 m dpl, dengan hamparan lahan yang menghadap laut.

TEKNIS BUDI DAYA

1. Pembibitan

Bibit harus sehat, memiliki batang yang kokoh dengan percabangan kuat, daun lebat, tidak terserang hama dan penyakit, permukaan batang, mulus berwarna kecoklatan, dan berbatang tunggal. Tinggi rata-rata 25-30 cm umur 1 tahun dan 50-75 cm umur 2 tahun.

2. Penanaman

Jarak tanam pada dataran rendah 7 x 7 m, 6 x 8 m atau 8 x 8m

Jarak tanam pada dataran tinggi 10 x 10 m atau 8 x 12 m.

Letak tanaman berurutan membentuk bujur sangkar atau persegi panjang.

3. Pengendalian Hama dan Penyakit

Hama yang umum menyerang tanaman cengkeh adalah penggerek, perusak pucuk, perusak daun dan perusak akar. Sedangkan penyakit yang sering menyerang antara lain Bakteri Pembuluh Kayu Cengkeh (BPKC), Cacar Daun Cengkeh (CDC), Die back (mati ranting), embun jelaga. Untuk pengendaliannya dapat digunakan insektisida/fungisida sesuai anjuran.

Panen:

Ciri dan Umur panen:

  • Kepala bunga kelihatan sudah penuh, tetapi belum membuka.
  • Umur panen tanaman cengkeh adalah 4,5-8,5 tahun sejak disemaikan tergantung pada jenis lingkungan.
  • Waktu pemanenan ada beberapa tahap, yang pertama jika 50-60 % jumlah bunga yang ada di pohon telah matang petik. Pemetikan ini bisa diulangi lagi setiap 10-14 hari selama 3-4 bulan. Di Jawa, panen mulai Mei dan berakhir Juli-Agustus. Hal ini tergantung dari iklim setempat.

Cara Panen:

Sebelum pemetikan dimulai, alat yang perlu disiapkan adalah karung berukuran kecil atau keranjang bambu dan karung besar. Apabila tanaman sudah cukup tinggi dan bunganya tidak terjangkau oleh tangan, maka perlu disiapkan tangga segitiga berkaki empat. Pemetikan dengan memanjat pohon sangat tidak dianjurkan karena dapat merusak tajuk tanaman. Adapun cara petik adalah sebagai berikut:

  • Bunga cengkeh dipetik pertandan tepat diatas buku daun terakhirnya dengan menggunakan kuku jari atau pisau kecil yang tajam.
  • Daun terakhir / termuda yang berdekatan dengan bunga tidak boleh ikut terpetik agar tidak mengganggu pertumbuhan tunas berikutnya. Apabila daun ini ikut terpetik bisa mengurangi jumlah tunas 1/3-1/2 bagian.
  • Bunga yang sudah dipetik dimasukkan kedalam keranjang atau karung kecil yang sudah dipersiapkan sebelumnya. Setelah penuh, bunga dimasukkan ke dalam karung besar untuk dibawa ke tempat pengolahan.

PREODE PANEN

Tanaman cengkeh di Indonesia mempunyai periode produksi yang khas, yakni mempunyai jumlah produksi yang berfluktuasi menurut siklus tertentu. Pada tahun tertentu tanaman akan menghasilkan produksi yang banyak, dan pada tahun-tahun tertentu produksi bisa menurun sampai 10-40%. Pola produksi tanaman cengkeh bisa digolongkan menjadi pola siklus 2 tahun dan siklus 3-4 tahun.

Pola siklus 2 tahun umumnya terdapat daerah yang mendapat pengaruh nyata dari iklim laut. Pada siklus ini, tanaman akan berproduksi tinggi atau sedang pada tahun pertama, kemudian pada tahun berikutnya mernjadi rendah. Pada tahun berikutnya lagi, jumlah produksi akan kembali seperti tahun pertama.

Siklus 3-4 tahun umumnya terdapat daerah yang tidak dapat pengaruh iklim laut. Pada siklus ini produksi tinggi akan terulang setiap 3-4 tahun, dengan pola yang bervariasi.

KLASIFIKASI DAN STANDAR MUTU

Standar mutu cengkeh Indonesia adalah:

1. Ukuran: Sama rata

2. Warna: Coklat kehitaman

3. Bau: Tidak apek

4. Bahan asing maksimum: 0,5-1,0%

5. Gagang maksimum: 1,0-5,0%

6. Cengkih rusak maksimum: 0 %

7. Kadar air maksimum: 14,0%

8. Cengkeh inferior maksimum: 2-5%

9. Kadar Atsiri maksimum: 16-20%

FAKTOR KRITIS

Tanaman cengkih mempunyai dua masa kritis dalam siklus hidupnya, yaitu sebelum tanaman mencapai umur 3 tahun dan setelah berumur 8 tahun, terutama pada awal dan sesudah panen pertama.

Suhu maserasi dan jenis minyak nabati memberikan perbedaan rendemen eugenol. Keadaan cengkeh yang diserbukkan memberikan rendemen eugenol yang lebih tinggi dari cengkeh yang masih utuh.

Interaksi organ bunga cengkih dan 4 jam penyulingan (O3L4) mampu meningkatkan rendemen minyak atsiri tertinggi mencapai 6,77 (mg/100 g bahan) dan juga kadar air terendah mencapai 0,27 % dan bilangan asam yang terendah dicapai 2,03.

RENDEMEN

Minyak dari daun cengkeh jelek/low quality (daun cengkeh gugur yang mengalami pengeringan secara alami oleh matahari lalu terbasahi kembali oleh hujan, busuk, dan kembali kering oleh matahari, demikian seterusnya, serta sudah tidak wangi cengkeh) menghasilkan rendemen rata-rata 1,3%

Minyak dari daun cengkeh gugur kualitas baik (daun cengkeh yg murni kering matahari, tanpa terbasahi hujan, dan masih berbau harum cengkeh) menghasilkan rendemen rata-rata 3,6%

Minyak dari batang cengkeh (clove stem) menghasilkan rendemen rata-rata 5,0%.

POTENSI CENGKEH

Cengkeh merupakan salah satu komoditas sub-sektor perkebunan yang sebagian besar diusahakan oleh perkebunan rakyat. Hasil utama tanaman cengkeh adalah bunganya yang dipanen pada saat kelopak bunga belum mekar. Bunga cengkeh kering merupakan salah satu bahan baku utama untuk rokok kretek yang merupakan rokok khas Indonesia. Pada awal tahun 1990, total areal cengkeh mencapai sekitar 700.000 ha dengan produksi 120.000 ton per tahun. Produksi tersebut sudah melampaui kebutuhan cengkeh dalam negeri yang waktu itu sekitar 100.000 ton per tahun, sehingga terjadi kelebihan pasokan. Produksi cengkeh Indonesia sejak tahun 1996 mengalami penurunan sebagai dampak dari ketidak pastian harga yang menyebabkan petani enggan memelihara tanamannya. Berdasarkan data produksi cengkeh, khususnya tahun 2004 dan 2005 terjadi defisit pasokan, karena kebutuhan industri rokok kretek rata-rata 92.133 ton per tahun. Diperkirakan lima tahun mendatang, produksi cengkeh habis terserap untuk kebutuhan pabrik rokok.

Potensi tanaman cengkeh yang belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal adalah daun cengkeh (daun gugur) dan tangkai bunga. Produk olahan yang dapat dihasilkan dari bunga, daun dan tangkai bunga (gagang) adalah (1) minyak cengkeh, (2) eugenol dari minyak cengkeh dan (3) senyawa turunan dari eugenol.

PROSPEK PENGEMBANGAN AGROINDUSTRI CENGKEH

Potensi dan prospek pengembangan agroindustri cengkeh mengacu pada pohon industri cengkeh (Gambar 2). Saat ini Indonesia merupakan negara produsen, sekaligus konsumen cengkeh terbesar di dunia. Dua negara lain yang cukup potensial sebagai penghasil cengkeh adalah Madagaskar dan Zanzibar (Tanzania) yang total produksinya sekitar 15.000 ton/tahun. Usaha agribisnis hilir yang dapat dilakukan meliputi:

Peningkatan mutu bunga cengkeh kering melalui perbaikan penanganan pascapanen (perontokan, sortasi basah untuk memisahkan bunga dan tangkai bunga dan kotoran, pengeringan bunga dan tangkai bunga, pengemasan dan penyimpanan).

Peningkatan produksi dan mutu tepung bunga cengkeh sebagai rempah bumbu untuk konsumsi rumah tangga dan industri makanan.

Peningkatan produksi dan mutu minyak daun cengkeh (dan gagang/tangkai bunga), melalui perbaikan teknologi penyulingan (destilasi) minyak.

Diversifikasi produk minyak daun cengkeh melalui peningkatan produksi dan mutu eugenol, dengan perbaikan teknologi isolasi eugenol.

Diversifikasi produk minyak daun cengkeh melalui peningkatan produksi dan mutu pestisida nabati (fungisida dan insektisida).

KEBUTUHAN INVESTASI AGROINDUSTRI CENGKEH

Tujuan melakukan investasi agribinis cengkeh adalah:

  • Membuka kesempatan kerja,
  • Meningkatkan pendapatan petani,
  • Meningkatkan pemanfaatan produk tanaman cengkeh secara berkelanjutan untuk mendapatkan nilai tambah,
  • Mendorong pengembangan ekonomi wilayah,
  • Meningkatkan pendapatan/devisa negara.
  • Sasaran yang ingin dicapai dalam investasi mencakup:
  • Menjaga keseimbangan supply dan demand cengkeh untuk pabrik rokok kretek,
  • Menciptakan hubungan kemitraan yang adil dan harmonis antara petani dan industri rokok/pedagang agar tercapai kesepakatan harga yang menguntungkan semua pihak,
  • Meningkatkan nilai tambah cengkeh melalui diversifikasi produk cengkeh.

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